In many places, the local feudal lord (seigneur) still had a major influence in the village's affairs, collecting taxes from tenant-villagers and ordering them to work the corvée, controlling which fields were to be used and when, and how much of the harvest should be given to him. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants; but there are also a small number of communes within much higher populations. In metropolitan France 57 percent of the 36,683 communes[5] have fewer than 500 inhabitants and, with 4,638,000 inhabitants, these smaller communes constitute just 7.7 percent of the total population. In Toulouse, on top of there being six intercommunal structures, the main community of Toulouse and its suburbs is only a community of agglomeration, although Toulouse is large enough to create an Urban Community according to the law. Toutes les villes de France ... Cliquez sur une ville pour afficher ses informations. Unlike the only partially successful statute enacted in 1966 and enabling urban communes to form urban communities, or the more marked failure of the Marcellin law of 1971, the Chevènement law met with a large measure of success, so that a majority of French communes are now involved in intercommunal structures. Napoleon also abolished the election of the municipal councils, which now were chosen by the prefect, the local representative of the central government. As for Paris, no intercommunal structure has emerged there, the suburbs of Paris fearing the concept of a "Greater Paris," and so disunity still is the rule in the metropolitan area, with the suburbs of Paris creating many different intercommunal structures all without the city. There are only a few exceptions: Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres (5.75 sq mi). On 14 December 1789, the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) passed a law creating the commune, designed to be the lowest level of administrative division in France, thus endorsing these independently created communes, but also creating communes of its own. Découvrez les communes de France. The Chevènement law has been extremely successful in the sense that a majority of French communes now have joined the new intercommunal structures. The Paris Commune was a popular-led democratic government that ruled Paris from March 18 to May 28, 1871. Alsace, with an area of 8,280 km2 (3,200 sq mi), and now part of the Région Grand Est, used to be the smallest of the regions of metropolitan France, and still has no fewer than 904 communes. – "In the name of the law, I declare you united by the bonds of marriage."). L es communes de France et Ma commune.. J e vais faire une demande au maire de ma commune pour qu’il accorde une audience à ma classe afin que tout cela soit vraiment du concret.. 2 ème séquence: . This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. La commune est dotée d’un tissu associatif très riche tant dans le domaine sportif, culturel que dans le secteur de l’animation et des loisirs. Before the revolution, France's lowest level of administrative division was the parish (paroisse), and there were up to 60,000 of them in the kingdom. Développement et quelques cases financées par d'autres partenaires (la JICA, les communes de France). In other words, just 8 percent of the French population live in 57 percent of its communes, whilst 92 percent are concentrated in the remaining 43 percent. Often the local syndicate has been turned officially into a community of communes, the new community of communes in fact managing only the services previously managed by the syndicate, contrary to the spirit of the law which has established the new intercommunal structures to carry out a much broader range of activities than that undertaken by the old syndicates. European France excluding, The commune of the French Republic with the shortest name is the commune of. Poullan-sur-Mer est une petite commune du nord-ouest de la France, située dans le département du Finistère et de la région Bretagne. Au 1 er janvier 2019, la France, y compris Mayotte, compte 34 970 communes.Au 1 er janvier 2017, 66 524 000 habitants vivent en France hors Mayotte. (2) Within the current extent of overseas France, which has remained unchanged since the independence of the New Hebrides in 1980. Some in the National Assembly were opposed to such a fragmentation of France into thousands of communes, but eventually Mirabeau and his ideas of one commune for each parish prevailed. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was even smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres (4.14 sq mi). A commune is the smallest and oldest administrative division in France. This was a real revolution for the thousands of villages that never had experienced organized municipal life before. French law makes allowances for the vast differences in commune size in a number of areas of administrative law. The Revolutionaries were inspired by Cartesian ideas as well as by the philosophy of the Enlightenment. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. In some urban areas like Marseille there exist four distinct intercommunal structures! However, for certain purposes there was one échevin or consul ranking above the others, a sort of mayor, although not with the same authority and executive powers as a modern mayor. French communes were created at the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789–1790. On 14 July 1789, at the end of the afternoon, following the storming of the Bastille, the provost of the merchants of Paris, Jacques de Flesselles, was shot by the crowd on the steps of Paris City Hall. The complete code has eight digits and three spaces within, but there is a popular simplified code with five digits and no space within: Each commune has a municipal council (conseil municipal) compound of municipal councilors (conseillers municipaux). In many areas, rich communes have joined with other rich communes and have refused to let in poorer communes, for fear that their citizens would be overtaxed to the benefit of poorer suburbs. Une telle base de données peut être utile pour des sites web ou des applications mobiles. By way of contrast, in the German states bordering Alsace, the geo-political and administrative areas have been subject to various re-organizations from the 1960s onward. Mairies de France.org est un site privé indépendant de l'administration française. With its 904 communes, Alsace has three times as many municipalities as Sweden, which has a much larger territory covering 449,964 km2 (173,732 sq mi) and yet is divided into only 290 municipalities (kommuner). Very good relations with Socialist Republic of Italy and Union of Britain. Ainsi, au 1er janvier 2020, la France ne comptait plus que 34 951 communes hors Mayotte et COM, ou 34 968 communes en incluant les 17 communes de Mayotte. French lawmakers having long been aware of the inadequacy of the communal structure inherited from the French Revolution for dealing with a number of practical matters, the so-called Chevènement law of 12 July 1999 is the most recent and most thoroughgoing measure aimed at strengthening and simplifying this principle. P remière séquence :. This small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium (11,265 inhabitants), or even Spain (564 inhabitants). Following that event, a "commune" of Paris was immediately set up to replace the old medieval chartered city of Paris, and a municipal guard was established to protect Paris against any attempt made by King Louis XVI to quell the ongoing revolution. (1) Within the current limits of metropolitan France, which existed between 1860 and 1871 and from 1919 to today. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes ("lieu dit" or "bourg"), the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers. Aide mots fléchés et mots croisés. [citation needed], One major often raised problem with intercommunality, is the fact that the intercommunal structures are not subject to directly election by the people, so it is the representatives of each individual commune that sit in the new structure. Communes de France Recherchez une ville par département : 01 Ain; 02 Aisne; 03 Allier; 04 Alpes-de-Haute-Provence; 05 Hautes-Alpes; 06 Alpes-Maritimes Celles si sont triées de la ville la plus peuplée à la moins peuplée. 50 parishes in the case of Paris), and they were usually enclosed by a defensive wall. Découvrez les Communes de France à travers leurs sites Web.. (ajouter le votre) Départements. Despite enormous differences in population, each of the communes of the French Republic possess a mayor (maire) and a municipal council (conseil municipal), which jointly manage the commune from the municipal hall (mairie), with exactly the same powers no matter the size of the commune. The communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. So far, however, local conservatism has been strong, and no mandatory merging proposal ever has made it past committee in the French Parliament. Communes typically are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. The expression "intercommunality" (intercommunalité) denotes several forms of cooperation between communes. Moreover, citizens from one village may be unwilling to have their local services run by an executive located in another village, whom they may consider unaware of or inattentive to their local needs. Suburban communes often team up with the city at the core of their urban area to form a community charged with managing public transport or even administering the collection of local taxes. Thus, they set out to establish administrative divisions that would be uniform across the country: the whole of France would be divided into départements, themselves divided into arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons, themselves divided into communes, no exceptions. Therefore, when they created the communes, they deprived them of any legal "personality" (as they did with the départements), with only the central state having legal "personality." The communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Priests were forced to surrender their centuries-old baptism, marriage, and burial books, which were deposited in the mairies. Unlike most other European countries, which stringently merged their communes to better reflect modern-day densities of population (such as Germany and Italy around 1970), dramatically decreasing the number of communes in the process – the Gemeinden of West Germany were decreased from 24,400 to 8,400 in the space of a few years – France only carried out mergers at the margin, and those were mostly carried out during the 19th century. From 1794 to 1977—except for a few months in 1848 and 1870-1871—Paris had no mayor and was thus directly controlled by the departmental prefect. Voir aussi : Listes de départements français par thématique. The most extreme example of this is Paris, where the urbanized area sprawls over 396 communes. Le nombre de communes en France, est en fréquente modification, généralement à la baisse, du fait des fusions et scissions de communes. Environnement La commune de Ghyvelde veille à sensibiliser ses citoyens à des pratiques plus respectueuses de l’environnement. Par exemple, les enregistrements avec comme valeur "2018" dans le champ Année correspondent aux communes françaises existantes au 1er Janvier 2018. Ce jeu de données détaille la liste des communes existantes françaises. The Chevènement law tidied up all these practices, abolishing some structures and creating new ones. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 22 juin 2020 à 20:07. Since the Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts of 1539 by Francis I, the priest in charge of the parish was also required to record baptisms, marriages, and burials. These abrupt changes profoundly alienated devout Catholics, and France soon was plunged into the throes of civil war, with the fervently religious regions of western France at its center. Mainly in this category are the traditional syndicates of communes. They usually group into the same commune several villages or towns, often with sizeable distances among them. Syndicates can be set up for a particular purpose or to deal with several simultaneous matters. Parishes lacked the municipal structures of post-Revolution communes. The commune (French pronunciation: ​[kɔmyn]) is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. Avec un prix d’achat à 1 130 € du m 2 et un prix moyen des loyers à 8 € du m 2 , Saint-Quentin se positionne en tête du classement des grandes villes les moins chères. In all other French communes, the municipal police are under the mayor's supervision. Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department: 63 Puy-de-Dôme: Communes of the Puy-de … Un an plus tard : 1 852 panneaux agrémentaient déjà le blog, plus de 30 personnes avaient adhéré à l’idée et contribuaient régulièrement à enrichir ce blog participatif. Le nombre de communes en France, est en fréquente modification, généralement à la baisse, du fait des fusions et scissions de communes. Even after Paris regained the right to elect its own mayor in 1977, the central government retained control of the Paris police. In recent years it has become increasingly common for communes to band together in intercommunal consortia for the provision of such services as refuse collection and water supply. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered. French kings often prided themselves on ruling over a "realm of 100,000 steeples". The size of the municipal council, the method of electing the municipal council, the maximum allowable pay of the mayor and deputy mayors, and municipal campaign finance limits (among other features) all depend on the population echelon into which a particular commune falls. Avoir des noms de villes normalisés (éviter les fautes d’orthographe). One problem is that mergers reduce the number of available elected positions, and thus are not popular with local politicians. Communes gather and contribute financially to the syndicate, but the syndicate cannot levy its own taxes. The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. Cet article est essentiellement un index de liens vers les différentes listes des communes de France, classées par région française et par numérotation de département (ou territoire) croissante. Nom de la commune de naissance / These structures have been left untouched by the Chevènement law, and they are on the decline. For the government of Paris in 1871, see, France territorial subdivision for municipalities, Communes farthest away from the capital city of France, Learn how and when to remove this template message, French villages destroyed in the First World War, Saint-Remy-en-Bouzemont-Saint-Genest-et-Isson, Beaujeu-Saint-Vallier-Pierrejux-et-Quitteur, List of fifteen largest French metropolitan areas by population, Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques, "Code officiel géographique — Présentation", Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques, "Code des collectivités d'outre-mer (COM)", "Le code officiel géographique (COG), avant, pendant et autour (Version 3, volume 1)", "Circonscriptions administratives au 1er janvier 2015 : comparaisons régionales", "25 Jahre Gemeindereform Baden-Württemberg; hier: Neuordnung der Gemeinden", Direction générale des collectivités locales (DGCL), Ministry of the Interior, "Répartition des EPCI à fiscalité propre par département au 01/01/2007", Le développement de l'intercommunalité: la révolution discrète, Complete lists of cities and municipalities in France, List of administrative divisions by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Communes_of_France&oldid=983949885, Fourth-level administrative country subdivisions, Articles that may contain original research from January 2015, All articles that may contain original research, Articles needing additional references from April 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing additional references from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2011, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, these municipal bodies were not democratic; they were usually in the hands of some rich bourgeois families upon whom, over time, nobility had been conferred, so they can be better labeled as. [citation needed], In urban areas, the new intercommunal structures are much more a reality, being created by local decision-makers out of genuine belief in the worth of working together. In exchange for the creation of a community, the government allocates money to them based on their population, thus providing an incentive for communes to team up and form communities. The municipal councilors are elected by the inhabitants of the commune for a 6-year term. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas. The Jacobin revolutionaries were afraid of independent local powers, which they saw as conservative and opposed to the revolution, and so they favored a powerful central state. Consequently, the Alsace region—despite having a land area only one-fifth the size and a total population only one-sixth of that of its neighbor Baden-Württemberg—has almost as many municipalities. Sujet et définition de mots fléchés et mots croisés ⇒ COMMUNE DE FRANCE sur motscroisés.fr toutes les solutions pour l'énigme COMMUNE DE FRANCE. La liste des communes par département est accessible en cliquant sur le nombre de communes du département. In this area as in many others, the work of the National Assembly was, properly speaking, revolutionary: not content with transforming all the chartered cities and towns into communes, the National Assembly also decided to turn all the village parishes into full-status communes. All of these communes would have equal status, they would all have a mayor at their head, and a municipal council elected by the inhabitants of the commune. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes. Structures with fiscal power. [citation needed], Moreover, intercommunal structures in many urban areas are still new, and fragile: Tensions exist between communes; the city at the center of the urban area often is suspected of wishing to dominate the suburban communes; communes from opposing political sides also may be suspicious of each other. Ainsi, au 1er janvier 2020, la France ne comptait plus que 34 951 communes hors Mayotte et COM, ou 34 968 communes en incluant les 17 communes de Mayotte. Quelques villes de France. Le nombre de communes en France, est en fréquente modification, généralement à la baisse, du fait des fusions et scissions de communes. However, many smaller communes have retained their native name. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or municipio in Spain. [citation needed]. [13], These impressive results however may hide a murkier reality. By 1837 that situation was judged impractical, as mayors and municipal councils could not be parties in courts. Dans le cadre de son pouvoir de police des funérailles et des inhumations, Le Maire de la Ville de Fort-de-France informe que, suivant l’arrêté municipal : n° S-26/10/2020-194 du 26/10/2020, la Ville procédera à compter du 23 novembre 2020, à la relève des sépultures en terrains communs dans le cimetière de … Découvrez le classement complet des villes classées par population L'annuaire des mairies est totalement gratuit. In Italy, the median area of communes (comuni) is 22 km2 (8.5 sq mi); in Belgium it is 40 km2 (15 sq mi); in Spain it is 35 km2 (14 sq mi); and in Germany, the majority of Länder have communes (Gemeinden) with a median area above 15 km2 (5.8 sq mi). Friendly relations with Mexico, Georgia and Bharitya Commune. In rural areas, many communes have entered a community of communes only to benefit from government funds. The municipal council is the legislative and deliberative organ of the commune. Liste des communes de la France d'outre-mer, Listes thématiques liées aux communes de France, dont le code postal ne correspond pas au département, Ayant abandonné leur nom pré-révolutionnaire, Ayant un nom issu de personnalités historiques, Dont le nom reprend le nom du département, Listes de départements français par thématique, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Listes_des_communes_de_France&oldid=172246001, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. Nous vous conseillons de mettre à jour votre navigateur internet pour utiliser la dernière version de Chrome, Firefox, Edge, ou Safari. Une commune en France est une «unité administrative» local et peut être aussi petite que quelques hectares - ou aussi grand que Paris! These municipal arrondissements are not to be confused with the arrondissements that are subdivisions of French départements: French communes are considered legal entities, whereas municipal arrondissements, by contrast, have no official capacity and no budget of their own. De 01 à 48. Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials (mayor and a "conseil municipal") with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, and Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France. Ce jeu de données est historisé : la date de validité de chaque enregistrement est indiquée dans le champ "Année". Since then, tremendous changes have affected France, as they have the rest of Europe: the Industrial Revolution, two world wars, and the rural exodus have all depopulated the countryside and increased the size of cities. Countless rural communes that had hundreds of inhabitants at the time of the French Revolution now have only a hundred inhabitants or fewer. Today about 90 percent of communes and departments are exactly the same as those designed at the time of the French Revolution more than 200 years ago, with the same limits. [1] "Commune" in English has a historical bias, and implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history (after the rising of the Paris Commune, 1871, which could have more felicitously been called, in English, "the rising of the City of Paris"). They wanted to do away with all the peculiarities of the past and establish a perfect society, in which all and everything should be equal and set up according to reason, rather than by tradition or conservatism. Fournit les informations dont vous avez besoin concernant les mairies et communes de France ; coordonnées, adresses email des mairies, nom du maire, téléphone, fax de la mairie, altitude, superficie des communes etc. This is because the suburban communes refused an urban community for fear of losing too much power, and opted for a community of agglomeration, despite the fact that a community of agglomeration receives less government funds than an urban community. French administrative divisions, however, have remained extremely rigid and unchanged. Other examples of retained names in the languages once spoken, or still spoken, on French territory: INSEE (Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques) gives numerical indexing codes to various entities in France, notably the communes (which do not coincide with postcodes). This is what the Chevènement law was concerned with, and it distinguished three structures with fiscal power: Apart from the above cases, the communes with the fewest inhabitants in the French Republic are: The largest commune of the French Republic is, The smallest commune of the French Republic is, In metropolitan France the largest commune is the commune of, The commune of the French Republic farthest away from Paris is the commune of, In continental France (i.e. To better grasp the staggering number of communes in France, two comparisons can be made: First, of the original 15 member states of the European Union there are approximately 75,000 communes; France alone, which comprises 16 percent of the population of the EU-15, had nearly half of its communes. Many rural communes with few residents struggle to maintain and manage basic services such as running water, garbage collection, or properly paved communal roads. A communal house had to be built in each of these villages, which would house the meetings of the municipal council as well as the administration of the commune. Présence de musées et d'activités sur la ville. En France, la commune est, sur le plan institutionnel, à la fois une collectivité territoriale, à savoir une autorité administrative décentralisée bénéficiant de la personnalité morale, et disposant d'affaires propres, distinctes des affaires de l' État, et une circonscription administrative, à savoir une division administrative dépourvue de personnalité juridique, territoire d'exercice d'un service déconcentré de l'administration étatique ou d'un de … unesdoc.unesco.org Mention is made of a hut financed by the International Association for … Préfecture de la région. [7] In comparison, the number of communes in Alsace was only reduced from 945 in 1971[8][9] (just before the Marcellin law aimed at encouraging French communes to merge with each other was passed, see Current debate section below) to 904 in January 2007. Some say that, should government money transfers be stopped, many of these communities of communes would revert to their former status of syndicate, or simply completely disappear in places where there were no syndicates prior to the law. As a consequence, civil servants and bureaucrats are the ones setting up the agenda and implementing it, with the elected representatives of the communes only endorsing key decisions. On 20 September 1792, the recording of births, marriages, and deaths also was withdrawn as a responsibility of the priests of the parishes and handed to the mayors. This is still the case today. It would take Napoleon I to re-establish peace in France, stabilize the new administrative system, and make it generally accepted by the population. ILE-DE-FRANCE / HAUTS-DE-SEINE / 92100. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Second, the United States, with a territory fourteen times larger than that of the French Republic, and nearly five times its population, had 35,937 incorporated municipalities and townships at the 2002 Census of Governments, fewer than that of the French Republic. Those without fiscal power, the loosest form of intercommunality. They had been emancipated from the power of feudal lords in the 12th and 13th centuries, had municipal bodies which administered the city, and bore some resemblance with the communes that the French Revolution would establish except for two key points: In the north, cities tended to be administered by échevins (from an old Germanic word meaning judge), while in the south, cities tended to be administered by consuls (in a clear reference to Roman antiquity), but Bordeaux was administered by jurats (etymologically meaning "sworn men") and Toulouse by capitouls ("men of the chapter").

commune de france

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